Automatic Plant Irrigation System Using NE555 Timer

Nowadays, watering crops are a normal problem in the agriculture field. It is happening because farmers have lack ideas about the availability of technologies. They lose their precious time pumping water to spread the entire field until it gets properly watered. We also know people always forget to pour water onto the garden soil during vacation. As a result, there is high chance plants get damage.

Here is a simple and valuable project where an automatic plant irrigation system is done that can be used in farming as well as in the home garden. This has also the ability to reduce overwatering which can prevent plants from dying. Proper irrigation systems are also needed to control the shortage of reserved water due to lack of rain. So automatic irrigation systems can waive off this water shortage.

Principle Behind Automatic Plant Irrigation System

We all know that soil has high resistance when it is dry and low resistance when it is wet. With this simple concept, we make this automatic plant irrigation system.

This irrigation system can sense the moisture from the soil and send a signal to the pump machine to pump the water and spreading the whole field. And after getting the required moisture from the ground, it sends another signal to the pump to stop watering.

Must Read Top NE555 Timer Project For Engineering Students


Automatic Plant Irrigation System

Circuit Diagram

automatic plant irrigation system

Components Required

  • NE555 Timer IC (x2)
  • 74HC04 Hex Inverter
  • 1MΩ Potentiometer
  • 1N4007 P-N Diode
  • 1N4148 Zener Diode
  • 12V Relay
  • SK100 Transistor
  • Resistor (4.7KΩ, 8.2KΩ, 27KΩ)
  • 47μF/25V Capacitor
  • 100μF/25V Capacitor
  • 10μF/25V Capacitor
  • 0.01μF Ceramic Capacitor (x2)
  • 9V Battery

Circuit Design Using PCB Software

To make the circuit compact and give a professional look, I have designed the PCB after testing all the features of the automatic plant irrigation system on the breadboard. I will explain in detail how we can design and order PCB for our project.

automatic plant irrigation system pcb

For the Gerber file check out this link automatic plant irrigation system PCB Gerber file.

Order PCB From PCBWay

This project is sponsored by PCBWay is a Chinese-based PCB (printed circuit board) prototype, PCB assembly, SMD Stencil, and Flexible PCB manufacturer. They ship to more than 170 countries worldwide and process more than 2100 PCB orders a day. It feels like PCBWay gives an excellent price and customer service factor in one single serving. The quality of the PCB is awesome and its thickness is really great. What is also spectacular about PCBWay to me, as a maker and customer, is their service. From their friendly support staff to their intuitive, user-friendly website features, it all counts towards what makes PCBWay an ideal company and brand for any electronic hobbyists In this article, I will state that how can we order PCB from PCBWay with step by step guide.

Features of PCBWay

1. PCB prototyping and manufacturing

They produce FR-4 and Aluminum boards and advanced PCBs like Rogers, HDI, Flexible and Rigid-Flex boards, at a very reasonable price.

Visit the link for Instant Quote

Visit the link for Gerber file viewer

2. PCB assembly

SMT & THT assembly starts from only $30 with a free stencil and free worldwide shipping. The components can be sourced and provided by PCBWay, or by clients themselves.

3. Layout and design

Partnering with quality service providers to offer design services.

4. Open source community

Student sponsorship shared PCB projects and so on.

5. 3D Printing & CNC

On-demand Production and Rapid Prototyping in as Fast as 1 Day Leading the Digital Manufacturing Revolution.

Step 1: Go to the PCBWay website and sign up/sign in. Into the PCB Prototype tab, enter the dimensions of your PCB, the number of layers, and the number of PCBs you require. After that proceed by clicking on the ‘Quote Now’ button.

Step 2: You will be redirected to a page where to set a few additional parameters like the board type, layers, material for PCB, thickness, and more, most of them are selected by default, if you are opting for any specific parameters, you can edit it in here.

Step 3: The final step is to upload the Gerber file and proceed with the payment. To make sure the process is smooth, PCBWAY verifies if your Gerber file is valid before proceeding with the payment. This way, you can be sure that your PCB is fabrication friendly.

Working Principle of Automatic Plant Irrigation System

The working principle of this project is very easy. First, we insert two probes in the soil. These probes conduct current when the soil is wet and stop conducting when the soil is dry. So when these two probes do not conduct any current while this system detects this situation with the help of 7404 gate ic. This will become high when the input is low.

The first NE555 timer will be triggered by the gate ic. Then the first NE555 timer triggers the second one which is connected to the output of the first NE555 timer. The second NE555 timer which is configured as an astable mode will help to switch on the pump. This 555 timer ic allows the water to flow to the soil.

After getting the soil fully wet, the probes start conducting current again. Then the output of the 7404 ic becomes low, i.e. zero, which makes the first 555 timer ic becomes low. At last remaining circuit belongs to a low condition. So, the pump is automatically switched off.

Advantages of Automatic Plant Irrigation System

  • The most effective advantage of this system is that it conserves water in critical situations. When the plant needs the water then it can provide the right amount of water.
  • The water can spread directly where it is exactly needed.
  • An automated shutdown power system can help the pump not to do overwatered.
  • An automatic plant irrigation system can save time for gardeners.
  • It can protect the soil ecosystem.

Application of Automatic Plant Irrigation System

  • It can be used to measure the loss of moisture in the soil due to evaporation or lack of water.
  • Automatic plant irrigation system helps to save water by reducing unnecessary water waste.
  • It looks after the plant when the owner is on vacation.

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