PIR Sensor Based Motion Security System Using Arduino

The need for Motion Security Systems nowadays is a serious demand. As the number of theft is increasing day by day, there has to be something that will keep us safe. We are all aware of high-end security systems present in the market not easily accessible to everyone. Therefore, we intend to build a cost-efficient electronic sensing system that has the capability of sensing the motion of intruders and setting off the alarm.

I have designed an interesting and cheap motion sensor-based motion security alarm. This Gadget helps to protect us from thieves. In this project, we are going to use an Arduino Nano, PIR Sensor, an LCD display and some other components. This Project can either be powered with a 9V battery or with a USB cable.

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Principle Behind Motion Security System

This is a basic motion-sensing alarm that detects when someone enters a security area. When an intruder is detected, it activates a siren. Our body generates heat in the form of infrared radiation which is invisible to human eyes. But it can be detected by an infrared sensor. This type of sensor is made up of crystalline material that is Pyroelectric. In this project, we are using PIR Motion Sensor Module as an infrared sensor that generates an electric charge when exposed to heat and sends a signal to the Arduino. According to the level of the infrared radiation in front of the sensor, Arduino displays the status on the LCD and starts buzzing the buzzer and glows the LED.

PIR sensors are more complicated than other sensors as there are multiple variables that affect the sensor’s input and output. PIR sensor has two slots in it, each slot is made of a special material that is sensitive to infrared radiation. The sensor is idle, both slots detect the same amount of IR, the ambient amount radiated from the room or walls or outdoors. When a warm body like a human or animal passes by, it first intercepts one-half of the PIR sensor, which causes a positive differential change between the two halves. When the warm body leaves the sensing area, the reverse happens, whereby the sensor generates a negative differential change.


Circuit Diagram

Motion Security System Circuit Diagram

Components Required

  • Arduino Nano
  • PIR Sensor HC-SR501
  • LDR Sensor (Light Dependent Resistor)
  • 16×2 LCD Display
  • Buzzer
  • Vero Board
  • Wires
  • 9V Battery

PCB Design

To remove messy wiring and give a clean look, I designed a PCB prototype for this project. It is also helpful for troubleshooting that runs great without any errors. To design this PCB board, I used EasyEDA as it is too easy to use. For ordering PCB for this, I prefer PCBWay.

Gerber file for Motion Security System Using Arduino Gerber.

PCB View

2d view of motion security system
2D View
3d view of motion security system
3D View

Order PCB From PCBWay

PCBs are the neatest and most professional-looking among the assembled circuit types. Any electronic circuit that needs to be professional looking uses PCB boards. But soldering is still required on the copper area on the PCB. In the early 1900s, the only way to make circuits for electrical or electronic components was by wiring them point-to-point on a chassis. These chassis were either pan or sheet. These methods made circuits very fragile and large or bulky, and expensive.

There are so many forums or communities for electronics online in today’s technical world, and one of the famous ones for PCB manufacturing is PCBWay. PCBWay is a place that brings manufacturers and customers together. They have more than a decade of experience in the field of fabrication and prototyping and assembling of PCBs. PCBWay has proved its focus on its customers’ needs in terms of cost-effectiveness, delivery, and quality. And this can be proved by their outstanding customer reviews. This PCBWay provided a platform for students and electronic hobbyists to display their projects to the community and give sponsorships if their work is attractive. Check out the large pool of sponsored projects here.

How PCB Manufacturing Process Done in PCBWay

Standard quality for any product needs to be maintained using some parameters. PCBWay gives that opportunity through quality control in designing and manufacturing. At first, they ensure the accuracy, clarity, and validity of the PCB files that we sent to them.

Then all the boards will go through the most stringent tests other than the basic visual check. They adopt most of the testing and inspecting equipment used in the industry, such as Flying Probe Tester, X-Ray Inspection Machines, and Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) Machines. PCBWay are having 50+ new engineers on a daily basis around the world using PCBs for their work, who trust their reliable quality. They produce high-quality pink, orange, grey, and even transparent solder mask. Moreover, according to people’s needs, they can also provide Black core PCB. Check it out for a High-Quality PCB solder mask. There are some pictures below of the new colours of solder musks.

Working Principle of Motion Security System

This system works as a low light-activated switch that can measure the exact ambient light level. It can adjust the whole system depending on the ambient light threshold value. For that, we take an LDR for measuring this light level.

When a logic HIGH-level signal is detected at its sensor input terminal, the alarm will trigger. Otherwise stays in the logic LOW-level state.

Passive Infrared Sensors can do this whole process easily and efficiently. When a person passes across the PIR sensor, the motion will be detected by his ambient temperature. By this, effectively controls the switching of the motion security alarm system.

Also, we can see the result of the motion sensor using a 16×2 LCD display. When the PIR sensor is ON, LCD will display that motion is detected. And when nothing is detected, the LCD shows that Motion Stopped.

Application of Motion Security System

  • This motion security system is widely used in homes and offices as an intruder alerting system.
  • It is also used in high-alert areas where trespassing is not allowed.

Advantages of Motion Security System

  • The motion security system is very handy and portable, and thus we can easily carry it from one place to another.
  • Circuit diagram is not so complex and thus can be easily troubleshot.
  • The given system sets off a powerful buzzer, and it is effective as any other alarm system
    available on the market.

Disadvantage of Motion Security System

  • It cannot differentiate between a living thing and a non-living thing. So it is also alarming when there is a non-living obstacle in front of the sensor.
  • The motion alarm system determines the presence of the intruder only and does not determine how many persons are in there actually.
  • The alarm activates only when the person passes through the PIR sensor.

Arduino Code

Output Video

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