An electrical symbol is used to indicate the components/parts in a specific circuit schematic. There are standard electrical symbols for every one of the components/parts which speak to those specific components/parts. Here in this article, we are clarifying some fundamental and generally utilized electronic components/parts with their specific electrical symbol.
There are two sections i.e. the Electrical part and another is the Electronical part.
Wires: This electrical symbol represents a conductor that conducts the electrical flow of current additionally called an electrical cable, electric line, or wire.
Connected wires: This electrical symbol represents the interaction of two wires which is indicated by a small dot.
Unconnected wires: This electrical symbol represents two wires that are detached from each other.
Input bus line: This electrical symbol represents a transport for information or approaching information.
Output bus line: This electrical symbol represents transport for output data or active information.
Terminal: This electrical symbol represents the beginning or endpoint of a wire.
bus line: This electrical symbol represents various conductors which are connected to each other and form a bus wire.
Push Button(Normally Open): Such a type of switch symbol is called a push button. It indicates that when the switch is in ON state the button is in the pushed situation either it is in OFF state.
Push Button(Normally Closed): This type of switch is initially in ON state mode. It doesn’t go to the OFF state if the button is not released.
SPST Switch: Single pole single throw is called as SPST. This goes about as ON/OFF switch. Poles characterize the number of circuits it very well may be associated with and throw characterize the number of places that a pole interfaces.
SPDT Switch: Single pole double throw is condensed as SPDT. This switch permits the current to flow in any of the two bearings by altering its position.
DPST Switch: Double pole single throw is condensed as DPST. This switch can drive two circuits one after another.
DPDT Switch: Double pole double pole is the full type of DPDT. This can associate the four circuits by changing the position.
Relay Switch: This electrical symbol stands for a transfer switch. This can control the AC Loads utilizing the DC voltage applied to the loop.
AC Supply: This electrical symbol stands for AC mains in a circuit.
DC Supply: This electrical symbol stands for DC supply in a circuit.
Constant Current Source: This electrical symbol stands for independent current source which delivers a constant current.
Controlled Current Source: It is a reliant current source. Typically depends upon different sources (voltage or current).
Controlled Voltage Source: It is a reliant voltage source. Normally depends upon different sources (voltage or current).
Single Cell Battery: This electrical symbol represents a single cell battery. This gives supply to the circuit.
Multi-Cell Battery: Blend of different single-cell batteries or a single large cell battery. The voltage is typically higher.
Sinusoidal Wave: This electrical symbol represents the sine wave signal.
Pulse Generator: This electrical symbol represents pulse or square wave signal.
Triangular Wave: This electrical symbol represents the triangular wave signal.
Ground: It is equivalent to theoretical 0V and is used as zero potential references. It is the potential of a perfectly conducting earth.
Signal Ground: It is a reference point from which the signal is measured. There may be several signal grounds in a circuit due to the voltage drops in a circuit.
Chassis Ground: It acts as a barrier between user and the circuit and prevents electric shock.
Fixed Resistor: It is a device that opposes the flow of current in a circuit. These two symbols are used to represent a fixed resistor.
Rheostat: It is a two-terminal variable resistor. They are generally used to control the current in the circuit. Generally used in tuning circuits and power control applications like heaters, ovens, etc.
Preset: It is a mini variable resistor. It is also called Trimmer Resistor or Trim Pot. The resistance is adjusted with rotary control present on top of it with the help of a screwdriver. They are used to adjust the sensitivity of the circuit like temperature or light.
Thermistor: It is a temperature-sensitive resistor. They are used in temperature sensing, current limiting circuits, over-current protection circuits, etc.
Varistor: It is a Voltage Dependent Resistor. It has non-linear current-voltage characteristics. Generally used in circuit protection from voltage surges and excessive transient voltages.
Magneto Resistor: They are also called as Magnetic Dependent Resistors (MDR). The resistance of the magneto resistor varies according to the external magnetic field strength. They are used in electronic compass, ferrous material detection, position sensors, etc.
LDR: They are also called as Photo Resistors. The resistance of LDR varies with the intensity of the light incident on it. They are generally used in light-sensing applications.
Tapped resistor: A wire-wound type fixed resistor with one or more terminals along its length. Generally used in voltage divider applications.
Attenuator: It is a device used to lower the power of a signal. They are made from simple voltage dividers and hence can be classified in the family of the resistors.
Memristor: The resistance of memristor is varied according to the direction of flow of charge. Memristors can be used in signal processing, logic/computation, non-volatile memory, etc.
Non-Polarized Capacitor: Capacitor stores the charge in the form of electrical energy. These two symbols are used for a non-polarized capacitor. Non-polarized capacitors are big in size with small capacitance. They can be used in both AC and DC circuits.
Polarized Capacitor: Polarized capacitors are small in size but have high capacitance. They are used in DC circuits. They can be used as filters, for bypassing or passing low-frequency signals.
Electrolytic Capacitor: Almost all electrolytic capacitors are polarized and hence used in DC circuits.
Feed through Capacitor: They provide low impedance path to ground for high frequency signals.
Variable Capacitor: The capacitance of the variable capacitor can be adjusted by turning the knob. They are widely used to adjust the frequency, which is for tuning.
Iron Core Inductor: These are used as substitutes to ferrite core inductors. Ferrite core or Ferromagnetic inductors have high permeability and require air gap to reduce it. Iron powdered core inductors have this air gap integrated.
Ferrite Core Inductors: Core material, in this type of inductors, is made of ferrite material. These are mostly used to suppress the interference of electromagnetic waves.
Center Tapped Inductors: These are used in coupling of signals.
Variable Inductors: Movable ferrite magnetic core variable inductors are most common. The inductance is varied by sliding the core in or out of the coil.
P-N Junction Diode: A P-N junction diode allows the current to flow only in forward bias condition. These diodes can be used in clipping and clamping circuits, as rectifiers in dc circuits, etc.
Zener Diode: In forward bias condition, it acts as a normal diode and allows current. It also allows current to flow in reverse bias condition when the voltage reaches a certain break-down point. Generally used in the voltage regulators and overvoltage protection circuits.
Photodiode: Photodiode detects the light energy and converts it into current or voltage by a mechanism called the photoelectric effect. These are used in CD players, Cameras, etc.
Led: Light-emitting diode is similar to PN junction diode but they emit energy in the form of light instead of heat. These are mostly used in indication, lighting applications.
Varactor Diode: Varactor diode is called a variable capacitance diode. The capacitance of this diode varies according to the applied input voltage. This is used in frequency-controlled oscillators, frequency multipliers, etc.
Shockley Diode: This is a four-layer diode. This had fast switching operation and hence is used in switching applications.
Schottky Diode: It represents a Schottky diode. It has a low forward voltage drop and it can switch rapidly. Used in voltage clamping, rectifiers, reverse current, and discharge protection.
Tunnel Diode: This is also known as the Esaki diode. It can switch very fastly and can perform well in the microwave frequency range. This is used in oscillator circuits and microwave circuits.
Thyristor: It consists of four layers of alternating P and N materials. They act as bistable switches and are used in circuits where high voltages and currents are involved.
Constant Current Diode: Also called a Current Limiting Diode or Current Regulating Diode. It limits the current to a specified maximum value.
Laser Diode: The laser diode is similar to the light-emitting diode. The active region is formed in an intrinsic region in the PIN structure. Laser diodes find their applications in laser printing, laser scanning, etc.
NPN: It is made of combination of P-type semiconductor between two N-type semiconductors. It is switched ON when the base-emitter junction is forward biased. They are commonly used for amplifying and switching applications.
PNP: It is made of combination of N-type semiconductor between two P-type semiconductors. It is switched ON when the base-emitter junction is reverse biased. These are used for amplifying and switching applications.
N-Channel JFET: N-channel JFET is made by n-type silicon bars which form two P-N junctions at the side. The majority of charge carriers here are electrons.
P-Channel JFET: P-Channel JFET is made by a p-type silicon bar which forms two P-N junctions at the side. The majority of charge carriers here are holes.
Enhancement MOSFET: The enhancement mode MOSFET has positive gate operation. It induces negative charges into the n-channel and thus number of negative charges increases, enhancing the channel conductivity.
Depletion MOSFET: The depletion mode has negative gate operation. This decreases the width of the depletion layer.
Phototransistor: The photo transistor converts the light energy falling on it to its corresponding electrical energy. This can be used in light sensing applications.Base is left disconnected as light is used to enable the flow of current.
Photo Darlington: Photo Darlington Transistor is similar to phototransistor with very high gain and sensitivity.
Darlington Transistor: This configuration produces high current gain. They are used in power regulators, output stages of audio amplifiers, display drivers etc.
AND Gate: This is the basic gate and it implements logical conjunction. The output of the AND gate is high, only if both the inputs are high otherwise both are low.
OR Gate: The OR gate implements logical disjunction. The output is high if any one of the inputs is high.
NAND Gate: It is complement of AND gate. The output is low only when both the inputs are high, otherwise it is high.
NOR Gate: NOR gate is a not OR gate. Output of this gate is high, if both the inputs are Low, otherwise it is High.
NOT Gate: Inverter or NOT gate implements logical negation. This gate inverts the input.
EX-OR Gate: This gate implements exclusive OR logic. The output of this gate is high ,if both the inputs are different.
EX-NOR Gate: This gate implements negation of EX-OR logic. The output of this gate is high , only if the two inputs are identical.
Buffer: It is an audio signaling device. Generally used in alarms, timers and for confirmation messages.
Tri-State Buffer: Similar to a normal buffer but with a control signal. In case of active high buffer, it operates normally only when control signal is 1. In case of active low buffer, it operates normally only when control signal is 0.
Flip Flop: The flip flop is also a memory element but this is a synchronous device. The figure below shows the basic D-flip-flop.
Basic Amplifier: An amplifier is a device that amplifies a relatively small input signal i.e. it increases the power of the signal. They are used in communication systems, audio devices etc.
Operational Amplifier: Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a voltage amplifier with very high gain. The input is differential. They are used in instrumentation devices, signal processing, control systems etc.
Antenna: This electrical symbol belongs to Aerial or Antenna. It converts electrical power into radio waves. It is used in wireless communication to transmit or receive the signals.
Loop Antenna: Loop antenna is named after its loop like shape of wire or other electrical conductor. They are used as receiving antennas in low frequency range.
Dipole Antenna: It is most widely used antenna.Generally used in set-top TV, shortwave transmission and FM receivers.
Transformer: This electrical symbol represents a transformer. The transformer is the basic element that transfers energy in one circuit to the other circuit through electromagnetic induction. They are generally used in electric power applications to increase or decrease the voltage of AC current.
Iron Core: Uses a piece of magnetic material as core. Generally Ferro magnetic metals like iron are used. The core has high permeability and is used to confine the magnetic field.
Center Tapped: The center tapped transformer has its secondary winding divided into two parts with same number of turns in each part. This results in two individual output voltages across two line ends. Used in rectifier circuits.
Step-Up Transformer: The no. of turns in the secondary winding is more than that of the primary winding. The output voltage is higher than the input voltage. Significantly used in inverters.
Step-Down Transformer: The no. of turns in secondary winding is less than that of primary winding. The output voltage is lesser than input voltage. It is widely used in low power applications.
Buzzer: This is sound producing device. This produces buzz sound when the voltage is applied.
Loud Speaker: This is also an audio device. The electrical signal is converted into a sound signal here.
Light Bulb: This electrical symbol represents the light bulb. The bulb glows when the required voltage is applied.
Motor: This converts the electric energy to mechanical energy.
Fuse: This electrical symbol represents the fuse that protects the circuit from over current.
Crystal Oscillator: Used to generate clock signal of very precise frequency.
ADC: Analog to Digital converter is used to convert analog signals (usually voltage) to digital values.
DAC: Digital to Analog converter is used to convert digital code to analog signals.
Thermocouple: This electrical symbol is used to measure temperature.
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